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Pedro Jaime Abreu Martínez[note 1], known as Pedro Martínez (born October 25, 1971), is a Dominican-American former starting pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for five teams from 1992 to 2009, most notably the Boston Red Sox. From 2002 to 2006 he held the major league record for the highest career winning percentage by a pitcher with at least 200 decisions; with a final record of 219 wins and 100 losses, he retired with the fourth highest percentage in history, and the highest by a right-hander since the modern pitching era began in 1893. He ended his career with an earned run average (ERA) of 2.93, the sixth lowest by a pitcher with at least 2,500 innings pitched since 1920. Martínez reached the 3,000 strikeout mark in fewer innings than any pitcher except Randy Johnson, and is the only pitcher to compile over 3,000 strikeouts with less than 3,000 innings pitched; his career strikeout rate of 10.04 per 9 innings trails only Johnson (10.61) among pitchers with over 1,500 innings.
An eight-time All-Star, Martínez was at his peak in the years from 1997 to 2003, establishing himself as one of the most dominant pitchers in history. He won three Cy Young Awards (1997, 1999, 2000) and was runner-up twice (1998, 2002), posting a cumulative record of 118–36 (.766) with a 2.20 ERA while leading his league in ERA five times and in winning percentage and strikeouts three times each. In 1999 he was runner-up for the American League (AL) Most Valuable Player Award after winning the pitching Triple Crown with a 23–4 record, 2.07 ERA and 313 strikeouts, and – along with Johnson – joined Gaylord Perry in the rare feat of winning the Cy Young Award in both the American and National Leagues. He is also the record holder for the lowest single-season WHIP in major league history with 0.737, doing so in 2000. Although his performance suffered a steep decline in 2004, he ended the season memorably by helping the Red Sox end a long drought in winning their first World Series title in 86 years.
Officially listed at 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m) and 170 pounds (77 kg), Martínez was unusually small for a modern-day power pitcher, and is believed to have been somewhat smaller than his officially listed height and weight. In his early 30s, injuries began to keep him off the field to an increasing extent, with his appearances and success dropping off sharply in his final seasons. Modern sabermetric analysis has strongly highlighted Martínez' achievements; his WHIP is the lowest of any live-ball era starting pitcher, his adjusted ERA+ is the best of any starting pitcher in major league history, and he has the third highest strikeout-to-walk ratio in modern history. He dominated while pitching most of the time in a hitter-friendly environment and facing some of the toughest competition during the so-called steroid era, which is generally thought to have favored batters. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2015, his first year of eligibility, joining Juan Marichal as the second Dominican to be enshrined; his number (45) was retired by the Red Sox in a ceremony two days after his Hall induction.