WWII U.S. MEDAL OF FREEDOM RARE CIVILIAN & FOREIGN FIGHTERS MEDAL

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--ORIGINAL WORLD WAR II 1946 UNITED STATES MEDAL OF FREEDOM, SLOT BROOCH, W/ 1/2" PIN-BACK RIBBON BAR.

--MAKER:
THE WHITEHEAD & HOAG COMPANY (ORIGINAL 1946 1ST ISSUE)

--RIBBON DRAPE & BAR TESTED UV NEGATIVE.

INFORMATION:

The Medal of Freedom was a decoration established by President Harry S. Truman July 6 1945, to honor civilians whose actions aided in the war efforts of the United States and its allies. It was intended to be awarded by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of War, or the Secretary of the Navy, but it is known that Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy also authorized awards.

During WWII this was issued primarily to those who assisted allied soldiers in escaping / avoiding capture by the enemy and for underground operations.

Awarded for:

"A meritorious act or service which has aided the United States in the prosecution of a war against an enemy or enemies and for which an award of another United States medal or decoration is considered inappropriate".

Eligibility:

Any person not a member of the armed forces of the United States.

First awarded: 1946
Last awarded: 1961
Total awarded: Over 20,000

The medal is a bronze disc whose obverse features the profile bust facing left of an individual wearing a cap resembling an American Bald Eagle ornamented by stars, with the word "FREEDOM" in capital letters in an arc at the bottom of the disc. The reverse features the Liberty Bell surrounded by the words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in capital letters. The medal is suspended on a red ribbon with four thin white stripes. The original Executive Order 9586 establishing the medal specified "No more than one Medal of Freedom shall be awarded to any one person, but for a subsequent act or service justifying such an award a suitable device may be awarded to be worn with the medal" and bronze, silver, and gold palm devices were produced and awarded, but there is no evidence of U.S. citizens having received these palm devices, whereas non-U.S. citizens did receive quite a number of them, and these devices have been interpreted as signifying degrees of the award.

-Medal without Palm device. (4754 awarded)
-Medal with Bronze Palm device. (987 awarded)
-Medal with Silver Palm device. (350 awarded)
75 or for members of Underground operation units.
-Medal with Gold palm device. (79 awarded)

The medal was amended on 3 April 1953, due to the Korean War not having an underground organization to aid escaping Americans. The award was expanded to include those whom have furthered the interest of the US security or an ally during a national emergency. Only the medal without palm was awarded to US citizens all other nations received all grades of the medal.

The Civilian Medal of Freedom degree of award compared to the Military degrees of the Legion of Merit.

Medal without palm device = Bronze star
Medal with Bronze palm = LOM Legionnaire / Officer grade
Medal with Silver palm = LOM Commander grade
Medal with Gold palm = LOM Chief Commander grade

The Original gold palm device of this medal is made of 10K solid gold.

Approximately 259 medals were awarded during the Korean War. Replaced 22 February 1963 by Presidential Medal of Freedom.

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